On the west coast of some Hebridean islands, however, there are stretches of calcareous sand the machair suitable for farming. EdinburghDundeeand Aberdeen are centres of administration, commerce, and industry for their areas, but only central Clydeside, including Glasgow with its satellite towns, is large enough to deserve the official title of conurbation metropolitan area.
Only since A reading project on the geography of scotland 20th century has the mixture been widely seen as a basis for a rich unified Scottish culture; the people of Shetland and Orkney have tended to remain apart from both of these elements and to look to Scandinavia as the mirror of their Norse heritage.
Ben Nevis from Loch Linnhe, Scotland.
Areas with good, arable land have largely been derived from old red sandstone and younger rocks, as in the Orkney Islandsthe eastern Highlands, the northeastern coastal plain, and the Lowlands.
Scotland is rich in animal life for its size. The latter two areas are included in the Lowlands cultural region. Examples of the old system survive, but now crofters have their own arable land fenced in, while they share the common grazing land.
The uplands slope toward the coastal plains along the Solway Firth in the south and to the machair and the Mull of Galloway farther west. The west coast is fringed by deep indentations sea lochs or fjords and by numerous islands, varying in size from mere rocks to the large landmasses of Lewis and HarrisSkyeand Mull.
Yet vestiges of regional consciousness linger. Coinage began by following English usage in regard to types and weights: Foxes and badgers are widespread, but the Scottish wildcat has become critically endangered as a result of disease and interbreeding with domestic cats.
Relief Scotland is traditionally divided into three topographic areas: The growth of industry and transport has helped produce urbanization. The high moorlands and hills, reaching up to 2, feet metres at Merrick, are also suitable for sheep farming.
Precipitation is greatest in the mountainous areas of the west, as prevailing winds, laden with moisture from the Atlantic, blow from the southwest. Alpine and Arctic species flourish on the highest slopes and plateaus of the Grampians, including saxifrages, creeping azalea, and dwarf willows.
The Scottish Episcopal Church is also significant, and there are congregations of other denominations, such as the Free Church of ScotlandBaptists, Congregationalists, Methodists, and Unitarians. Religion Scotland is relatively free from ethnic and religious strife. Page 1 of 4.
Historically, England has been the main beneficiary of Scottish emigration, especially during economic downturns. Gaelic, the Celtic language brought from Ireland by the Scots, is spoken by only a tiny proportion of the Scottish population, mainly concentrated in the Western Isles and the western Highlands, with pockets elsewhere, especially in Glasgow.
Demographic trends While Scotland makes up about one-third of the area of the United Kingdom, it has less than one-tenth of the population, of which the greatest concentration nearly three-fourths lives in the central belt. A few ospreys nest in Scotland, and golden eagles, buzzards, peregrine falcons, and kestrels are the most notable of resident birds of prey.
Hence, the west tends to be milder in winter, with less frost and with snow seldom lying long at lower elevations, but it is damper and cloudier than the east in summer. The Galloway area in the southwest, cut off by hills from the rest of the country, has a vigorous regional patriotism.
The enlargement of the European Union in led to a dramatic increase in immigration from the countries of eastern Europe. East winds are common in winter and spring, when cold, dry continental air masses envelop the east coast.
Settlement patterns In earlier times mountains, rivers, and seas divided the Scottish people into self-sufficient communities that developed strong senses of local identity.
Colour Library International The southern boundary of the Midland Valley is not such a continuous escarpment, but the fault beginning in the northeast with the Lammermuir and Moorfoot hills and extending to Glen App, in the southwest, is a distinct dividing line.
But, because of the deep penetration of the sea in the sea lochs and firths estuariesmost places are within 40 to 50 miles 65 to 80 km of the sea, and only 30 miles 50 km of land separate the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forththe two great estuarine inlets on the west and east coasts, respectively.
The Gaelic-speaking people of the Hebrides and the western Highlands find their language a bond of community. Lochs are numerous in the Highlands, ranging from moraine-dammed lochans pools in mountain corries cirques to large and deep lochs filling rock basins.
Large-scale emigration also placed Scots in such countries as Canadathe United Statesand Australia until the late 20th century; despite this phenomenon, however, the size of the Scottish population has remained relatively stable since World War II.
Drainage Uplift and an eastward tilting of the Highlands some 50 million years ago during the Eocene Epoch formed a watershed near the west coast. In the northwest, the Hebrides, the Shetland Islands, and other areas, the soil is poor and rocky, and cultivation is possible only at river mouths, glens, and coastal strips.
Peat is widespread on moors and hills.
The Clyde and the Tweed both rise in the Southern Uplands, the one flowing west into the Firth of Clyde and the other east into the North Sea, while the Nith, the Annan, and a few other rivers run south into the Solway Firth. Herds of red deer graze in the corries and remote glens; although formerly woodland dwellers, they are now found mainly on higher ground, but roe deer still inhabit the woods, along with sika and fallow deer both introduced species in some areas.
In the Lowlands and the Southern Uplands, lochs are shallower and less numerous. Faiths other than Christianity are also practiced, especially by ethnic minority groups; for example, Glasgow has several synagogues and mosques and a Buddhist centre.From the geography and people of Scotland, to Scottish symbols, famous Scots and unique wildlife - the list is as fascinating and diverse as the country itself.
The name Scotland derives from the Latin Scotia, land of the Scots, a Celtic people from Ireland who settled on the west coast of Great Britain about the 5th century ad. The Scotland | history - geography | killarney10mile.com Find out about the landscapes of the Highlands and Islands, Central Lowlands and Southern Uplands of Scotland.
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This is a project Local government areas (districts and counties in England, counties and county boroughs in Wales, council areas in Scotland, and districts in Northern Ireland) are the primary frame of reference in articles Further reading.
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